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An extensible authentication and authorization library for Clojure/Ring web applications and services.

Picking up his staff he stood before the rock and said in a clear voice:

The star shone out briefly and faded again. Then silently a great
doorway was outlined, though not a crack or joint had been visible
before. Slowly it divided in the middle and swung outwards inch by inch,
until both doors lay back against the wall. Through the opening a
shadowy stair could be seen climbing steeply up; but beyond the lower
steps the darkness was deeper than the night. The Company stared in

"I was wrong after all," said Gandalf, "and Gimli too. Merry, of all
people, was on the right track. The opening word was inscribed on the
archway all the time! The translation should have been: Say 'Friend' and
enter. I had only to speak the Elvish word for friend and the doors
opened. Quite simple. Too simple for a learned lore master in these
suspicious days. Those were happier times. Now let us go!"

— J.R.R. Tolkien, Lord of the Rings


Friend is intended to provide a foundation for addressing all of the authentication and authorization concerns associated with web apps:

  • user agent authentication; Friend currently includes support for form, HTTP Basic, and OpenId authentication, and makes it easy to:
    • implement and use other workflows
    • integrate app-specific user-credential checks
  • role-based authorization
    • optionally uses Clojure's ad-hoc hierarchies to model hierarchical roles
  • su capabilities (a.k.a. "log in as"), enabling users to maintain multiple simultaneous logins, as well as to allow administrators to take on users' identities for debugging or support purposes (in progress)
  • channel security (restricting certain resources to a particular protocol/scheme, usually HTTPS)
  • and the creature comforts:
    • Ring middlewares for configuring and defining the scopes of authentication, authorization, and channel security
    • Macros to clearly demarcate the scope of authentication and authorization within code that is "below" the level of Ring handlers where you can't use middlewares.
    • A reasonable Clojure API around the jbcrypt library for hashing sensitive bits.
    • Enables DRY routes and configuration, e.g. no need to configure your routes in Compojure or Noir or Moustache, and separately specify which routes fall under the jurisdiction of Friend's security machinery
    • Purely functional in nature: authentications, roles, and session data are obtained, retained, and passed around as good ol' persistent data structures (just as Ring intended). No stateful session or context is ever bashed in place, making it easier to reason about what's going on.


Nothing like Friend exists, and it needs to. Securing Ring applications and services is (charitably speaking) a PITA right now, with everyone rolling their own, or starting with relatively low-level middlewares and frameworks. This will never do. Serious web applications need to take security seriously, and need to readily interoperate with all sorts of authentication mechanisms that have come to litter the web as well as internal networks.

Friend has been built with one eye on a number of frameworks.


Very stable, widely-used in production AFAIK.

Note: while actively maintained, Friend is in search of a new maintainer.


Available here.

Known issues

  • This README is way too long and not well-organized. It's more of a brain-dump than anything else at the moment.
  • Configuration keys need a bit of tidying, especially for those that can/should apply to multiple authorization workflows. Fixes for such things will break the existing API.
  • the su mechanism is in-progress
  • the OpenId authentication workflow needs to be broken out into a separate project so that those who aren't using it don't suffer its transitive dependencies. (The form and HTTP Basic workflows are dependency-free, and will likely remain here.)
  • …surely there's more. File issues.


Friend is available in Clojars. Add this :dependency to your Leiningen project.clj:

[com.cemerick/friend "0.2.1"]

Or, add this to your Maven project's pom.xml:



Friend is compatible with Clojure 1.2.0 - 1.5.0+.


How you use Friend will vary, sometimes significantly, depending on the authentication providers you use and the authorization policy/ies you want to enforce. A generic example of typical usage of Friend is below, but the best way to become familiar with Friend and how it can be used would be to go check out

…a collection of tiny demonstration apps using Friend. It should be easy to find the one(s) that apply to your situation, and go straight to its source so you can see how all the pieces fit together.

Here's probably the most self-contained Friend usage possible:

  (:require [cemerick.friend :as friend]
            (cemerick.friend [workflows :as workflows]
                             [credentials :as creds])))

; a dummy in-memory user "database"
(def users {"root" {:username "root"
                    :password (creds/hash-bcrypt "admin_password")
                    :roles #{::admin}}
            "jane" {:username "jane"
                    :password (creds/hash-bcrypt "user_password")
                    :roles #{::user}}})

(def ring-app ; ... assemble routes however you like ...

(def secured-app
  (-> ring-app
    (friend/authenticate {:credential-fn (partial creds/bcrypt-credential-fn users)
                          :workflows [(workflows/interactive-form)]})
    ; ...required Ring middlewares ...

We have an unadorned (and unsecured) Ring application (ring-app, which can be any Ring handler), and then the usage of Friend's authenticate middleware. This is where all of the authentication work will be done, with the return value being a secured Ring application (secured-app), the requests to which are subject to the configuration provided to authenticate and the authorization contexts that are defined within ring-app (which we'll get to shortly).

(If you're newer to Clojure, you might not recognize the tokens prefixed with two colons [e.g. ::admin]. These are auto-namespaced keywords; in the example above, ::admin expands to


There are two key abstractions employed during authentication: workflow and credential functions. The example above defines a single workflow — one supporting the POSTing of :username and :password parameters to (by default) /login — which will discover the specified :credential-fn and use it to validate submitted credentials. The bcrypt-credential-fn function verifies a submitted map of {:username "..." :password "..."} credentials against one loaded from another function based on the :username value; in this case, we're just looking up the username in a fixed Clojure map that has username, (bcrypted) password, and roles entries. If a submitted set of credentials matches those in the authoritative store, the latter are returned (sans :password) as an authentication map.

(Each workflow can have its own local configuration — including a credential function — that is used in preference to the configuration specified at the authenticate level.)

The authenticate middleware runs every incoming request through each of the workflows with which it is created. It further handles things like retaining authentication details in the user session (by default) and managing the redirection of users when they attempt to access protected resources without the requisite authentication or authorization (first to the start of an authentication workflow, e.g. GET of a /login URI, and then back to the originally-requested protected resource once the authentication workflow is completed).

(Note that Friend itself requires some core Ring middlewares: params, keyword-params and nested-params. Most workflows will additionally require session in order to support post-authentication redirection to previously-unauthorized resources, retention of tokens and nonces for workflows like OpenId and oAuth, etc. HTTP Basic is the only provided workflow that does not require session middleware.)


Individual authentication methods (e.g., form-based auth, HTTP Basic, OpenID, oAuth, etc.) are implemented as workflows in Friend. A workflow is a regular Ring handler function, except that a workflow function can opt to return an authentication map instead of a Ring response if a request is authenticated. A diagram may help:

You can define any number of workflows in a :workflows kwarg to authenticate. Incoming requests are always run through the configured workflows prior to potentially being passed along to the secured Ring application.

If a workflow returns an authentication map, then the authenticate middleware will either:

  • carry on processing the request if the workflow allows for credentials to be provided in requests to any resource (i.e. HTTP Basic); control of this is entirely up to each workflow, and will be described later.
  • redirect the user agent to a secured resource that it was previously barred from accessing via Friend's authorization machinery

If a workflow returns a Ring response, then that response is sent back to the user agent straight away (after some bookkeeping by the authenticate middleware to preserve session states and such). This makes it possible for a workflow to control a "local" dataflow between itself, the user agent, and any necessary external authorities (e.g. by redirecting a user agent to an OpenId endpoint, performing token exchange in the case of oAuth, etc., eventually returning a complete authentication map that will allow the user agent to proceed on its desired vector).

Credential functions and authentication maps

Workflows use a credential function to verify the credentials provided to them via requests. Credential functions can be specified either as a :credential-fn option to cemerick.friend/authenticate, or often as an (overriding) :credential-fn option to individual workflow functions.

All credential functions take a single argument, a map containing the available credentials that additionally contains a :cemerick.friend/workflow slot identifying which workflow has produced the credential. For example, the default form-based authentication credential map looks like this:

{:username "...", :password "...", :cemerick.friend/workflow :form}

HTTP Basic credentials are much the same, but with a workflow value of :http-basic, etc. Different workflows may have significantly different credential maps (e.g. an OpenID workflow does not provide username and password, but rather a token returned by an OpenID provider along with potentially some number of "attributes" like the user's name, email address, default language, etc.), and unique credential verification requirements (again, contrast the simple username/password verification of form or HTTP Basic credentials and OpenId, which, in general, when presented with unknown credentials, should register the indicated identity rather than verifying it).

In summary, the contract of what exactly must be in the map provided to credential functions is entirely at the discretion of each workflow function, as is the semantics of the credential function.

If a map of credentials is verified by a credential function, it should return a authentication map that aggregates all authentication and authorization information available for the identified user. This map may contain many entries, depending upon the authentication information that is relevant for the workflow in question and the user data relevant to the application, but two entries are privileged:

  • :identity (required) corresponds with e.g. the username in a form or HTTP Basic authentication, an oAuth token, etc.; this value must be unique across all users within the application
  • :roles, an optional collection of values enumerating the roles for which the user is authorized, or a function returning the same.

If a map of credentials is found to be invalid, the credential function must return nil.


As is, the example above doesn't do a lot: users can opt to be authenticated, but we've not described any kind of security policy, identified routes or functions or forms that require particular roles to access, and so on. This is where authorization mechanisms come into play.

While Friend has a single point of authentication — the authenticate middleware — it has many different options for restricting access to particular resources or code:

  • authenticated is a macro that requires that the current user must be authenticated
  • authorized? is a predicate that returns true only if the current user (as determined via the authentication map returned by a workflow) possesses the specified roles. You'll usually want to use one of the higher-level facilities (keep reading), but authorized? may come in handy if access to a certain resource or operation cannot be specified declaratively.

The rest of the authorization utilities use authorized? to determine whether a user may gain access to whatever the utility is protecting:

  • authorize is a macro that guards any body of code from being executed within a thread associated with a user that is not authorized?
  • wrap-authorize is a Ring middleware that only allows requests to pass through to the wrapped handler if their associated user is authorized?
  • authorize-hook is a function intended to be used with the Robert Hooke library that allows you to place authorization guards around functions defined in code you don't control.

Here's an extension of the example above that adds some actual routes (using Compojure) and handler that require authentication:

(use '[compojure.core :as compojure :only (GET ANY defroutes)])

(defroutes user-routes
  (GET "/account" request (page-bodies (:uri request)))
  (GET "/private-page" request (page-bodies (:uri request))))

(defroutes ring-app
  ;; requires user role
  (compojure/context "/user" request
    (friend/wrap-authorize user-routes #{::user}))

  ;; requires admin role
  (GET "/admin" request (friend/authorize #{::admin}
                          "Admin page."))

  ;; anonymous
  (GET "/" request "Landing page.")
  (GET "/login" request "Login page.")
  (friend/logout (ANY "/logout" request (ring.util.response/redirect "/"))))

This should be easy to grok, but some highlights:

  • Authorization checks generally should happen after routing. This is usually easily accomplished by segregating handlers as you might do so anyway, and then using something like Compojure's context utility to wire them up into a common URI segment.
  • Alternatively, you can use authorize to put authorization guards around any code, anywhere.
  • The logout middleware can be applied to any Ring handler, and will remove all authentication information from the session assuming a non-nil response from the wrapped handler.

Note that, so far, all of the authorization checks will be completely "strict", e.g. the admin user won't have access to /user because it requires the ::user role. This is where hierarchies are unreasonably helpful.

Hierarchical roles (/ht derive, isa?, et al.)

The foundational authorized? predicate uses isa? to check if any of the current user's roles match one of those specified. This means that you can take advantage of Clojure's hierarchies via derive to establish relationships between roles. e.g., this is all that is required to give a user with the ::admin role all of the privileges of a user with the ::user role:

(derive ::admin ::user)

Of course, you are free to construct your role hierarchy(ies) however you like, to suit your application and your security requirements.

Channel security

Channel security is the redirection of requests for a given resource through a specific channel, i.e. requiring that logins or a payment workflow is performed over HTTPS instead over HTTP.

requires-scheme is Ring middleware that enforces channel security for a given Ring handler:

(use '[cemerick.friend :only (requires-scheme *default-scheme-ports*)])

; HTTP requests routed to https-routes will be redirected to the
; corresponding HTTPS URL on the default port
(def https-routes (requires-scheme routes :https))

; HTTP requests routed to custom-https-port-routes be redirected to the
; corresponding HTTPS URL on port 8443
(def custom-https-port-routes (requires-scheme routes :https {:https 8443}))

; alternative default ports for HTTP and HTTPS may be bound dynamically
; to simplify configuration of multiple routes
(binding [*default-scheme-ports* {:http 8080 :https 8443}]
  (def http-routes (requires-scheme routes :http))
  (def https-routes (requires-scheme routes :https)))

Note that requires-scheme is unrelated to the authentication, authorization, etc facilities in Friend, and can be used in isolation.

Nginx configuration

If you are using Nginx to, e.g, terminate SSL, set the appropriate headers so that the Clojure backend can generate the correct return-to URLs for the openid and similar workflows:

upstream jetty_upstream {
  keepalive 64;

server {
  listen 443 ssl;
  #...SSL termination config, &c.

  location / {
    proxy_set_header host              $host;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for   $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-host  $host;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-proto $scheme;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-port  $server_port;
    proxy_pass http://jetty_upstream;


  • run-as/sudo/multi-user login
  • alternative hashing methods and salting strategies
    • good to encourage bcrypt, but existing apps have tons of sha-X, md5, etc passwords
  • remember-me?
  • fine-grained authorization (viz. ACLs, etc)
    • maybe something compelling can fall out of existing treatment of roles?
  • interop
    • recognize / provide access to servlet principal
    • spring-security
  • make :cemerick.friend/workflow metadata
  • documentation
    • authentication retention
    • authentication map metadata:
      • :type
      • ::friend/workflow
      • ::friend/redirect-on-auth?
      • ::friend/ensure-session

Need Help?

Ping cemerick on freenode irc or twitter if you have questions or would like to contribute patches.


Copyright ©2012-2013 Chas Emerick and other contributors.

Distributed under the Eclipse Public License, the same as Clojure. Please see the epl-v10.html file at the top level of this repo.