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future-architect/vuls

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future-architect / vuls

Go

Vulnerability scanner for Linux/FreeBSD, agentless, written in Go


READ ME

Vuls: VULnerability Scanner

Slack License Build Status

Vuls-logo

Vulnerability scanner for Linux/FreeBSD, agentless, written in golang.

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README in Japanese
README in French

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Vuls-slack


TOC


Abstract

For a system administrator, having to perform security vulnerability analysis and software update on a daily basis can be a burden. To avoid downtime in production environment, it is common for system administrator to choose not to use the automatic update option provided by package manager and to perform update manually. This leads to the following problems.

  • System administrator will have to constantly watch out for any new vulnerabilities in NVD(National Vulnerability Database) or similar databases.
  • It might be impossible for the system administrator to monitor all the software if there are a large number of software installed in server.
  • It is expensive to perform analysis to determine the servers affected by new vulnerabilities. The possibility of overlooking a server or two during analysis is there.

Vuls is a tool created to solve the problems listed above. It has the following characteristics.

  • Informs users of the vulnerabilities that are related to the system.
  • Informs users of the servers that are affected.
  • Vulnerability detection is done automatically to prevent any oversight.
  • Report is generated on regular basis using CRON or other methods. to manage vulnerability.

Vuls-Motivation


Main Features

  • Scan for any vulnerabilities in Linux/FreeBSD Server
    • Supports Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS, Amazon Linux, RHEL, Oracle Linux, FreeBSD and Raspbian
    • Cloud, on-premise, Docker
  • Scan middleware that are not included in OS package management
    • Scan middleware, programming language libraries and framework for vulnerability
    • Support software registered in CPE
  • Agentless architecture
    • User is required to only setup one machine that is connected to other target servers via SSH
  • Nondestructive testing
  • Pre-authorization is not necessary before scanning on AWS
  • Auto generation of configuration file template
    • Auto detection of servers set using CIDR, generate configuration file template
  • Email and Slack notification is possible (supports Japanese language)
  • Scan result is viewable on accessory software, TUI Viewer on terminal or Web UI (VulsRepo).

What Vuls Doesn't Do

  • Vuls doesn't update the vulnerable packages.

Setup Vuls

There are 2 ways to setup Vuls.


Tutorial: Local Scan Mode

This tutorial will let you scan the vulnerabilities on the localhost with Vuls.
This can be done in the following steps.

  1. Launch Amazon Linux
  2. Install requirements
  3. Deploy go-cve-dictionary
  4. Deploy Vuls
  5. Configuration
  6. Check config.toml and settings on the server before scanning
  7. Scan
  8. Reporting
  9. TUI(Terminal-Based User Interface)
  10. Web UI (VulsRepo)

Step1. Launch Amazon Linux

Step2. Install requirements

Vuls requires the following packages.

$ ssh ec2-user@52.100.100.100  -i ~/.ssh/private.pem
$ sudo yum -y install sqlite git gcc make
$ wget https://storage.googleapis.com/golang/go1.7.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ sudo tar -C /usr/local -xzf go1.7.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ mkdir $HOME/go

Add these lines into /etc/profile.d/goenv.sh

export GOROOT=/usr/local/go
export GOPATH=$HOME/go
export PATH=$PATH:$GOROOT/bin:$GOPATH/bin

Set the OS environment variable to current shell

$ source /etc/profile.d/goenv.sh

Step3. Deploy go-cve-dictionary

go-cve-dictionary

$ sudo mkdir /var/log/vuls
$ sudo chown ec2-user /var/log/vuls
$ sudo chmod 700 /var/log/vuls
$
$ mkdir -p $GOPATH/src/github.com/kotakanbe
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/kotakanbe
$ git clone https://github.com/kotakanbe/go-cve-dictionary.git
$ cd go-cve-dictionary
$ make install

The binary was built under $GOPATH/bin

Fetch vulnerability data from NVD.
It takes about 10 minutes (on AWS).

$ cd $HOME
$ for i in `seq 2002 $(date +"%Y")`; do go-cve-dictionary fetchnvd -years $i; done
... snip ...
$ ls -alh cve.sqlite3
-rw-r--r-- 1 ec2-user ec2-user 7.0M Mar 24 13:20 cve.sqlite3

Step4. Deploy Vuls

Launch a new terminal and SSH to the ec2 instance.

$ mkdir -p $GOPATH/src/github.com/future-architect
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/future-architect
$ git clone https://github.com/future-architect/vuls.git
$ cd vuls
$ make install

The binary was built under $GOPATH/bin

Step5. Config

Create a config file(TOML format).

$ cd $HOME
$ cat config.toml
[servers]

[servers.localhost]
host         = "localhost"
port        = "local"

Root privilege is needed on Some distributions. Sudo with password is not supported for security reasons. So you have to define NOPASSWORD in /etc/sudoers. See Usage: Configtest#Check /etc/sudoers

Step6. Check config.toml and settings on the server before scanning

$ vuls configtest

see Usage: configtest

Step7. Start Scanning

$ vuls scan
... snip ...

Scan Summary
============
localhost       amazon 2015.09         94 CVEs      103 updatable packages

Step8. Reporting

View one-line summary

$ vuls report -format-one-line-text -cvedb-path=$PWD/cve.sqlite3

One Line Summary
================
localhost   Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14)        103 updatable packages

View short summary.

$ vuls report -format-short-text

localhost (amazon 2015.09)
===========================
Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14)        103 updatable packages

CVE-2016-5636           10.0 (High)     Integer overflow in the get_data function in zipimport.c in CPython (aka Python)
                                        before 2.7.12, 3.x before 3.4.5, and 3.5.x before 3.5.2 allows remote attackers
                                        to have unspecified impact via a negative data size value, which triggers a
                                        heap-based buffer overflow.
                                        http://www.cvedetails.com/cve/CVE-2016-5636
                                        https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2016-5636
                                        python27-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                                        python27-devel-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-devel-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                                        python27-libs-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-libs-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                                        Confidence: 100 / YumUpdateSecurityMatch
... snip ...

View full report.

$ vuls report -format-full-text

localhost (amazon 2015.09)
============================
Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14)        103 updatable packages

CVE-2016-5636
-------------
Score           10.0 (High)
Vector          (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C)
Summary         Integer overflow in the get_data function in zipimport.c in CPython (aka Python)
                before 2.7.12, 3.x before 3.4.5, and 3.5.x before 3.5.2 allows remote attackers
                to have unspecified impact via a negative data size value, which triggers a
                heap-based buffer overflow.
CWE             https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/190.html
NVD             https://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2016-5636
MITRE           https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2016-5636
CVE Details     http://www.cvedetails.com/cve/CVE-2016-5636
CVSS Claculator https://nvd.nist.gov/cvss/v2-calculator?name=CVE-2016-5636&vector=(AV:N/AC:L/...
RHEL-CVE        https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2016-5636
ALAS-2016-724   https://alas.aws.amazon.com/ALAS-2016-724.html
Package         python27-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-devel-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-devel-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-libs-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-libs-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
Confidence      100 / YumUpdateSecurityMatch

... snip ...

Step9. TUI

Vuls has Terminal-Based User Interface to display the scan result.

$ vuls tui

Vuls-TUI

Step10. Web UI

VulsRepo is a awesome Web UI for Vuls.
Check it out the Online Demo.


Tutorial: Remote Scan Mode

This tutorial will let you scan the vulnerabilities on the remote host via SSH with Vuls.
This can be done in the following steps.

  1. Launch Another Amazon Linux
  2. Install Dependencies on the Remote Host
  3. Enable to SSH from Localhost
  4. Configuration
  5. Check config.toml and settings on the server before scanning
  6. Scan
  7. Reporting

We will use the Vuls server (called localhost) created in the previous tutorial.

Step1. Launch Another Amazon Linux

Same as Tutorial: Local Scan Mode#Step1. Launch Amazon Linux
Launch a new terminal and SSH to the Remote Server.

Step2. Install Dependencies on the Remote Server

Depending on the distribution you need to install dependent modules. Install these dependencies manually or using Ansible etc. For details of dependent libraries, see Dependencies on Target Servers

Step3. Enable to SSH from Localhost

Vuls doesn't support SSH password authentication. So you have to use SSH key-based authentication.
Create a keypair on the localhost then append public key to authorized_keys on the remote host.

  • Localhost
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa

Copy ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub to the clipboard.

  • Remote Host
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
$ touch ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ vim ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Paste from the clipboard to ~/.ssh/.authorized_keys

SUDO with password is not supported for security reasons. So you have to define NOPASSWORD in /etc/sudoers on target servers.
See Usage: Configtest#Check /etc/sudoers

And also, confirm that the host keys of scan target servers has been registered in the known_hosts of the Localhost.

Step4. Config

  • Localhost
$ cd $HOME
$ cat config.toml
[servers]

[servers.172-31-4-82]
host         = "172.31.4.82"
port        = "22"
user        = "ec2-user"
keyPath     = "/home/ec2-user/.ssh/id_rsa"

Step5. Check config.toml and settings on the server before scanning

$ vuls configtest

see Usage: configtest

Step6. Start Scanning

$ vuls scan
... snip ...

Scan Summary
============
172-31-4-82       amazon 2015.09         94 CVEs      103 updatable packages

Step7. Reporting

See Tutorial: Local Scan Mode#Step8. Reporting
See Tutorial: Local Scan Mode#Step9. TUI
See Tutorial: Local Scan Mode#Step10. Web UI


Setup Vuls in a Docker Container

see https://github.com/future-architect/vuls/tree/master/setup/docker


Architecture

A. Scan via SSH Mode (Remote Scan Mode)

Vuls-Architecture

B. Scan without SSH (Local Scan Mode)

Deploy Vuls to the scan target server. Vuls issues a command to the local host (not via SSH). Aggregate the JSON of the scan result into another server. Since it is necessary to access the CVE database in order to refine the scan result, start go-cve-dictionary in server mode beforehand. On the aggregation server, you can refer to the scanning result of each scan target server using WebUI or TUI.

Vuls-Architecture Local Scan Mode Details

go-cve-dictionary

  • Fetch vulnerability information from NVD and JVN(Japanese), then insert into SQLite3 or MySQL.

Scanning Flow

Vuls-Scan-Flow

  • Scan vulnerabilities on the servers via SSH and collect a list of the CVE ID
    • To scan Docker containers, Vuls connects via SSH to the Docker host and then docker exec to the containers. So, no need to run sshd daemon on the containers.

Performance Considerations

  • On Ubuntu, Debian and Raspbian Vuls issues apt-get changelog for each upgradable packages and parse the changelog.
    apt-get changelog is slow and resource usage is heavy when there are many updatable packages on target server.
    Vuls stores these changelogs to KVS(boltdb).
    From the second time on, the scan speed is fast by using the local cache.

  • On CentOS
    Vuls issues yum update --changelog to get changelogs of upgradable packages at once and parse the changelog.
    Scan speed is fast and resource usage is light.

  • On Amazon, RHEL and FreeBSD
    High speed scan and resource usage is light because Vuls can get CVE IDs by using package manager(no need to parse a changelog).

Distribution Scan Speed
Ubuntu First time: Slow / From the second time: Fast
Debian First time: Slow / From the second time: Fast
CentOS Fast
Amazon Fast
RHEL Fast
Oracle Linux Fast
FreeBSD Fast
Raspbian First time: Slow / From the second time: Fast

Use Cases

Scan All Servers

Vuls-Usecase1

Scan a Single Server

web/app server in the same configuration under the load balancer

Vuls-Usecase2

Scan Staging Environment

If there is a staging environment with the same configuration as the production environment, you can scan the server in staging environment


Support OS

Distribution Release
Ubuntu 12, 14, 16
Debian 7, 8
RHEL 5, 6, 7
Oracle Linux 5, 6, 7
CentOS 6, 7
Amazon Linux All
FreeBSD 10, 11
Raspbian Wheezy, Jessie

Usage: Automatic Server Discovery

Discovery subcommand discovers active servers specified in CIDR range, then display the template of config file(TOML format) to terminal.

$ vuls discover -help
discover:
        discover 192.168.0.0/24

Example

$ vuls discover 172.31.4.0/24
# Create config.toml using below and then ./vuls --config=/path/to/config.toml

[slack]
hookURL      = "https://hooks.slack.com/services/abc123/defghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
channel      = "#channel-name"
#channel      = "${servername}"
iconEmoji    = ":ghost:"
authUser     = "username"
notifyUsers  = ["@username"]

[email]
smtpAddr      = "smtp.gmail.com"
smtpPort      = "587"
user          = "username"
password      = "password"
from          = "from@address.com"
to            = ["to@address.com"]
cc            = ["cc@address.com"]
subjectPrefix = "[vuls]"

[default]
#port        = "22"
#user        = "username"
#keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
#cpeNames = [
#  "cpe:/a:rubyonrails:ruby_on_rails:4.2.1",
#]
#ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6313"]
#optional = [
#    ["key", "value"],
#]

[servers]

[servers.172-31-4-82]
host         = "172.31.4.82"
#port        = "22"
#user        = "root"
#keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
#cpeNames = [
#  "cpe:/a:rubyonrails:ruby_on_rails:4.2.1",
#]
#ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6313"]
#optional = [
#    ["key", "value"],
#]
#[servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
#type = "lxd" # or "docker"
#includes = ["${running}"]
#excludes = ["container_name", "container_id"]

You can customize your configuration using this template.


Configuration

  • Slack section

    [slack]
    hookURL      = "https://hooks.slack.com/services/abc123/defghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
    channel      = "#channel-name"
    #channel      = "${servername}"
    iconEmoji    = ":ghost:"
    authUser     = "username"
    notifyUsers  = ["@username"]
    
    • hookURL : Incoming webhook's URL

    • channel : channel name.
      If you set ${servername} to channel, the report will be sent to each channel.
      In the following example, the report will be sent to the #server1 and #server2.
      Be sure to create these channels before scanning.

      [slack]
      channel      = "${servername}"
      ...snip...
      
      [servers]
      
      [servers.server1]
      host         = "172.31.4.82"
      ...snip...
      
      [servers.server2]
      host         = "172.31.4.83"
      ...snip...
      
    • iconEmoji: emoji

    • authUser: username of the slack team

    • notifyUsers: a list of Slack usernames to send Slack notifications. If you set ["@foo", "@bar"] to notifyUsers, @foo @bar will be included in text.
      So @foo, @bar can receive mobile push notifications on their smartphone.

  • EMail section

    [email]
    smtpAddr      = "smtp.gmail.com"
    smtpPort      = "587"
    user          = "username"
    password      = "password"
    from          = "from@address.com"
    to            = ["to@address.com"]
    cc            = ["cc@address.com"]
    subjectPrefix = "[vuls]"
    
  • Default section

    [default]
    #port        = "22"
    #user        = "username"
    #keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    #cpeNames = [
    #  "cpe:/a:rubyonrails:ruby_on_rails:4.2.1",
    #]
    #ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6313"]
    #optional = [
    #    ["key", "value"],
    #]
    

    Items of the default section will be used if not specified.

  • servers section

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    #port        = "22"
    #user        = "root"
    #keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    #cpeNames = [
    #  "cpe:/a:rubyonrails:ruby_on_rails:4.2.1",
    #]
    #ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6314"]
    #optional = [
    #    ["key", "value"],
    #]
    #[servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
    #type = "lxd" # or "docker"
    #includes = ["${running}"]
    #excludes = ["container_name", "container_id"]
    

    You can overwrite the default value specified in default section.

    • host: IP address or hostname of target server
    • port: SSH Port number
    • user: SSH username
    • keyPath: SSH private key path
    • cpeNames: see Usage: Scan vulnerability of non-OS package
    • ignoreCves: CVE IDs that will not be reported. But output to JSON file.
    • optional: Add additional information to JSON report.
    • containers: see [Example: Scan containers (Docker/LXD)(#example-scan-containers-dockerlxd)

    Vuls supports two types of SSH. One is external command. The other is native go implementation. For details, see -ssh-native-insecure option

    Multiple SSH authentication methods are supported.

    • SSH agent
    • SSH public key authentication (with password and empty password) Password authentication is not supported.

Usage: Configtest

$ vuls configtest --help
configtest:
        configtest
                        [-config=/path/to/config.toml]
                        [-log-dir=/path/to/log]
                        [-ask-key-password]
                        [-ssh-native-insecure]
                        [-containers-only]
                        [-timeout=300]
                        [-debug]

                        [SERVER]...
  -ask-key-password
        Ask ssh privatekey password before scanning
  -config string
        /path/to/toml (default "/Users/kotakanbe/go/src/github.com/future-architect/vuls/config.toml")
  -containers-only
        Test containers only. Default: Test both of hosts and containers
  -debug
        debug mode
  -http-proxy string
        http://proxy-url:port (default: empty)
  -log-dir string
        /path/to/log (default "/var/log/vuls")
  -ssh-native-insecure
        Use Native Go implementation of SSH. Default: Use the external command
  -timeout int
        Timeout(Sec) (default 300)

The configtest subcommand checks the following

  • Whether vuls is able to connect via SSH to servers/containers defined in the config.toml
  • Whether Dependent package is installed on the scan target server
  • Check /etc/sudoers

Dependencies on Target Servers

In order to scan, the following dependencies are required, so you need to install them manually or with tools such as Ansible.

Distribution Release Requirements
Ubuntu 12, 14, 16 -
Debian 7, 8 aptitude
CentOS 6, 7 yum-plugin-changelog
Amazon All -
RHEL 5 yum-security
RHEL 6, 7 -
Oracle Linux 5 yum-security
Oracle Linux 6, 7 -
FreeBSD 10 -
Raspbian Wheezy, Jessie -

Check /etc/sudoers

The configtest subcommand checks sudo settings on target servers whether Vuls is able to SUDO with nopassword via SSH. And if you run Vuls without -ssh-native-insecure option, requiretty must be defined in /etc/sudoers.

Defaults:vuls !requiretty

For details, see -ssh-native-insecure option

Example of /etc/sudoers on target servers

  • CentOS
vuls ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/yum --changelog --assumeno update *
Defaults:vuls env_keep="http_proxy https_proxy HTTP_PROXY HTTPS_PROXY"
  • RHEL 5 / Oracle Linux 5
vuls ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/yum --color=never repolist, /usr/bin/yum --color=never list-security --security, /usr/bin/yum --color=never check-update, /usr/bin/yum --color=never info-security
Defaults:vuls env_keep="http_proxy https_proxy HTTP_PROXY HTTPS_PROXY"
  • RHEL 6, 7 / Oracle Linux 6, 7
vuls ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/yum --color=never repolist, /usr/bin/yum --color=never --security updateinfo list updates, /usr/bin/yum --color=never check-update, /usr/bin/yum --color=never --security updateinfo updates
Defaults:vuls env_keep="http_proxy https_proxy HTTP_PROXY HTTPS_PROXY"
  • Debian
vuls ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/apt-get update
Defaults:vuls env_keep="http_proxy https_proxy HTTP_PROXY HTTPS_PROXY"
  • Ubuntu/Raspbian
vuls ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/apt-get update
Defaults:vuls env_keep="http_proxy https_proxy HTTP_PROXY HTTPS_PROXY"
  • On Amazon Linux, FreeBSD, it is possible to scan without root privilege for now.

Usage: Scan

$ vuls scan -help
scan:
        scan
                [-config=/path/to/config.toml]
                [-results-dir=/path/to/results]
                [-log-dir=/path/to/log]
                [-cachedb-path=/path/to/cache.db]
                [-ssh-native-insecure]
                [-containers-only]
                [-skip-broken]
                [-http-proxy=http://192.168.0.1:8080]
                [-ask-key-password]
                [-timeout=300]
                [-timeout-scan=7200]
                [-debug]
                [-pipe]

                [SERVER]...
  -ask-key-password
        Ask ssh privatekey password before scanning
  -cachedb-path string
        /path/to/cache.db (local cache of changelog for Ubuntu/Debian)
  -config string
        /path/to/toml
  -containers-only
        Scan containers only. Default: Scan both of hosts and containers
  -debug
        debug mode
  -http-proxy string
        http://proxy-url:port (default: empty)
  -log-dir string
        /path/to/log (default "/var/log/vuls")
  -pipe
        Use stdin via PIPE
  -results-dir string
        /path/to/results
  -skip-broken
        [For CentOS] yum update changelog with --skip-broken option
  -ssh-native-insecure
        Use Native Go implementation of SSH. Default: Use the external command
  -timeout int
        Number of seconds for processing other than scan (default 300)
  -timeout-scan int
        Number of second for scaning vulnerabilities for all servers (default 7200)

-ssh-native-insecure option

Vuls supports different types of SSH.

By Default, external SSH command will be used. This is useful If you want to use ProxyCommand or cipher algorithm of SSH that is not supported by native go implementation.
Don't forget to add below line to /etc/sudoers on the target servers. (username: vuls)

Defaults:vuls !requiretty

To use native Go implementation from crypto/ssh, specify this option.
This is useful in situations where you may not have access to traditional UNIX tools. But it is important to note that this mode does not check the host key.

-ask-key-password option

SSH key password -ask-key-password
empty password -
with password required or use ssh-agent

Example: Scan all servers defined in config file

$ vuls scan -ask-key-password

With this sample command, it will ..

  • Ask SSH key password before scanning
  • Scan all servers defined in config file

Example: Scan specific servers

$ vuls scan server1 server2

With this sample command, it will ..

  • Use SSH Key-Based authentication with empty password (without -ask-key-password option)
  • Scan only 2 servers (server1, server2)

Example: Scan via shell instead of SSH.

Vuls scans localhost instead of SSH if the host address is localhst or 127.0.0.1 and the port is local in config. For more details, see Architecture section

  • config.toml
    [servers]
    
    [servers.localhost]
    host         = "localhost" # or "127.0.0.1"
    port         = "local"
    

cron

If you use local scan mode for cron jobs, don't forget to add below line to /etc/sudoers on RHEL/CentOS. (username: vuls)

Defaults:vuls !requiretty

Example: Scan containers (Docker/LXD)

It is common that keep containers running without SSHd daemon.
see Docker Blog:Why you don't need to run SSHd in your Docker containers

Docker

Vuls scans Docker containers via docker exec instead of SSH.
For more details, see Architecture section

  • To scan all of running containers
    "${running}" needs to be set in the containers item.

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    user        = "ec2-user"
    keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
    includes = ["${running}"]
    
  • To scan specific containers
    The container ID or container name needs to be set in the containers item.
    In the following example, only container_name_a and 4aa37a8b63b9 will be scanned.
    Be sure to check these containers are running state before scanning.
    If specified containers are not running, Vuls gives up scanning with printing error message.

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    user        = "ec2-user"
    keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
    includes = ["container_name_a", "4aa37a8b63b9"]
    
  • To scan except specific containers

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    user        = "ec2-user"
    keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
    includes = ["${running}"]
    excludes = ["container_name_a", "4aa37a8b63b9"]
    
  • To scan containers only

    • --containers-only option is available.

LXD

Vuls scans lxd via lxc exec instead of SSH.

[servers]

[servers.172-31-4-82]
host         = "172.31.4.82"
user        = "ec2-user"
keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"

[servers.172-31-4-82.containers]
type = "lxd"
includes = ["${running}"]

Usage: Report

report:
        report
                [-lang=en|ja]
                [-config=/path/to/config.toml]
                [-results-dir=/path/to/results]
                [-log-dir=/path/to/log]
                [-refresh-cve]
                [-cvedb-type=sqlite3|mysql]
                [-cvedb-path=/path/to/cve.sqlite3]
                [-cvedb-url=http://127.0.0.1:1323 or mysql connection string]
                [-cvss-over=7]
                [-diff]
                [-ignore-unscored-cves]
                [-to-email]
                [-to-slack]
                [-to-localfile]
                [-to-s3]
                [-to-azure-blob]
                [-format-json]
                [-format-xml]
                [-format-one-email]
                [-format-one-line-text]
                [-format-short-text]
                [-format-full-text]
                [-gzip]
                [-aws-profile=default]
                [-aws-region=us-west-2]
                [-aws-s3-bucket=bucket_name]
                [-azure-account=accout]
                [-azure-key=key]
                [-azure-container=container]
                [-http-proxy=http://192.168.0.1:8080]
                [-debug]
                [-debug-sql]
                [-pipe]

                [SERVER]...
  -aws-profile string
        AWS profile to use (default "default")
  -aws-region string
        AWS region to use (default "us-east-1")
  -aws-s3-bucket string
        S3 bucket name
  -azure-account string
        Azure account name to use. AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT environment variable is used if not specified
  -azure-container string
        Azure storage container name
  -azure-key string
        Azure account key to use. AZURE_STORAGE_ACCESS_KEY environment variable is used if not specified
  -config string
        /path/to/toml
  -cvedb-path string
        /path/to/sqlite3 (For get cve detail from cve.sqlite3)
  -cvedb-type string
        DB type for fetching CVE dictionary (sqlite3 or mysql) (default "sqlite3")
  -cvedb-url string
        http://cve-dictionary.com:8080 or mysql connection string
  -cvss-over float
        -cvss-over=6.5 means reporting CVSS Score 6.5 and over (default: 0 (means report all))
  -diff
        Difference between previous result and current result
  -debug
        debug mode
  -debug-sql
        SQL debug mode
  -format-full-text
        Detail report in plain text
  -format-json
        JSON format
  -format-one-email
        Send all the host report via only one EMail (Specify with -to-email)
  -format-one-line-text
        One line summary in plain text
  -format-short-text
        Summary in plain text
  -format-xml
        XML format
  -gzip
        gzip compression
  -http-proxy string
        http://proxy-url:port (default: empty)
  -ignore-unscored-cves
        Don't report the unscored CVEs
  -lang string
        [en|ja] (default "en")
  -log-dir string
        /path/to/log (default "/var/log/vuls")
  -pipe
        Use stdin via PIPE
  -refresh-cve
        Refresh CVE information in JSON file under results dir
  -results-dir string
        /path/to/results
  -to-azure-blob
        Write report to Azure Storage blob (container/yyyyMMdd_HHmm/servername.json/xml/txt)
  -to-email
        Send report via Email
  -to-localfile
        Write report to localfile
  -to-s3
        Write report to S3 (bucket/yyyyMMdd_HHmm/servername.json/xml/txt)
  -to-slack
        Send report via Slack

How to read a report

Example

$ vuls report -format-full-text

172-31-4-82 (amazon 2015.09)
============================
Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14)        103 updatable packages

CVE-2016-5636
-------------
Score           10.0 (High)
Vector          (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C)
Summary         Integer overflow in the get_data function in zipimport.c in CPython (aka Python)
                before 2.7.12, 3.x before 3.4.5, and 3.5.x before 3.5.2 allows remote attackers
                to have unspecified impact via a negative data size value, which triggers a
                heap-based buffer overflow.
CWE             https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/190.html
NVD             https://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2016-5636
MITRE           https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2016-5636
CVE Details     http://www.cvedetails.com/cve/CVE-2016-5636
CVSS Claculator https://nvd.nist.gov/cvss/v2-calculator?name=CVE-2016-5636&vector=(AV:N/AC:L/...
RHEL-CVE        https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2016-5636
ALAS-2016-724   https://alas.aws.amazon.com/ALAS-2016-724.html
Package         python27-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-devel-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-devel-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-libs-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-libs-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
Confidence      100 / YumUpdateSecurityMatch

... snip ...

Summary part

172-31-4-82 (amazon 2015.09)
============================
Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14)        103 updatable packages
  • 172-31-4-82 means that it is a scan report of servers.172-31-4-82 defined in cocnfig.toml.
  • (amazon 2015.09) means that the version of the OS is Amazon Linux 2015.09.
  • Total: 94 (High:19 Medium:54 Low:7 ?:14) means that a total of 94 vulnerabilities exist, and the distribution of CVSS Severity is displayed.
  • 103 updatable packages means that there are 103 updateable packages on the target server.

Detailed Part

CVE-2016-5636
-------------
Score           10.0 (High)
Vector          (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C)
Summary         Integer overflow in the get_data function in zipimport.c in CPython (aka Python)
                before 2.7.12, 3.x before 3.4.5, and 3.5.x before 3.5.2 allows remote attackers
                to have unspecified impact via a negative data size value, which triggers a
                heap-based buffer overflow.
CWE             https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/190.html
NVD             https://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2016-5636
MITRE           https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2016-5636
CVE Details     http://www.cvedetails.com/cve/CVE-2016-5636
CVSS Claculator https://nvd.nist.gov/cvss/v2-calculator?name=CVE-2016-5636&vector=(AV:N/AC:L/...
RHEL-CVE        https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2016-5636
ALAS-2016-724   https://alas.aws.amazon.com/ALAS-2016-724.html
Package         python27-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-devel-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-devel-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
                python27-libs-2.7.10-4.119.amzn1 -> python27-libs-2.7.12-2.120.amzn1
Confidence      100 / YumUpdateSecurityMatch
  • Score means CVSS Score.

  • Vector means CVSS Vector

  • Summary means Summary of the CVE.

  • CWE means CWE - Common Weakness Enumeration of the CVE.

  • NVD MITRE CVE Details CVSS Caluculator

  • RHEL-CVE means the URL of OS distributor support.

  • Oracle-CVE means the URL of the Oracle Linux errata information.

  • Package shows the package version information including this vulnerability.

  • Confidence means the reliability of detection.

    • 100 is highly reliable
    • YumUpdateSecurityMatch is the method of detecting this vulnerability.
  • Item list of Confidence

    Detection Method Confidence OS Description
    YumUpdateSecurityMatch 100 RHEL, Oracle Linux, Amazon Linux Detection using yum-plugin-security
    ChangelogExactMatch 95 CentOS, Ubuntu, Debian, Raspbian Exact version match between changelog and package version
    ChangelogLenientMatch 50 Ubuntu, Debian, Raspbian Lenient version match between changelog and package version
    PkgAuditMatch 100 FreeBSD Detection using pkg audit
    CpeNameMatch 100 All Search for NVD information with CPE name specified in config.toml

Changelog Part

The scan results of Ubuntu, Debian, Raspbian or CentOS are also output Changelog in TUI or report with -format-full-text. (RHEL, Amazon or FreeBSD will be available in the near future)

The output change log includes only the difference between the currently installed version and candidate version.

tar-1.28-2.1 -> tar-1.28-2.1ubuntu0.1
-------------------------------------
tar (1.28-2.1ubuntu0.1) xenial-security; urgency=medium

  * SECURITY UPDATE: extract pathname bypass
    - debian/patches/CVE-2016-6321.patch: skip members whose names contain
      ".." in src/extract.c.
    - CVE-2016-6321

 -- Marc Deslauriers <marc.deslauriers@ubuntu.com>  Thu, 17 Nov 2016 11:06:07 -0500

Example: Send scan results to Slack

$ vuls report \
      -to-slack \
      -cvss-over=7 \
      -cvedb-path=$PWD/cve.sqlite3

With this sample command, it will ..

  • Send scan results to slack
  • Only Report CVEs that CVSS score is over 7

Example: Put results in S3 bucket

To put results in S3 bucket, configure following settings in AWS before reporting.

Example of IAM policy:

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "s3:ListAllMyBuckets"
            ],
            "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::*"
        },
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "s3:PutObject"
            ],
            "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::vuls/*"
        }
    ]
}
$ vuls report \
      -cvedb-path=$PWD/cve.sqlite3 \
      -to-s3 \
      -format-json \
      -aws-region=ap-northeast-1 \
      -aws-s3-bucket=vuls \
      -aws-profile=default

With this sample command, it will ..

  • Put scan result(JSON) in S3 bucket. The bucket name is "vuls" in ap-northeast-1 and profile is "default"

Example: Put results in Azure Blob storage

To put results in Azure Blob Storage, configure following settings in Azure before reporting.

  • Create a Azure Blob container
$ vuls scan \
      -cvedb-path=$PWD/cve.sqlite3 \
      -report-azure-blob \
      -azure-container=vuls \
      -azure-account=test \
      -azure-key=access-key-string

With this sample command, it will ..

  • Put scan result(JSON) in Azure Blob Storage. The container name is "vuls", storage account is "test" and accesskey is "access-key-string"

account and access key can be defined in environment variables.

$ export AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT=test
$ export AZURE_STORAGE_ACCESS_KEY=access-key-string
$ vuls scan \
      -cvedb-path=$PWD/cve.sqlite3 \
      -report-azure-blob \
      -azure-container=vuls

Example: IgnoreCves

Define ignoreCves in config if you don't want to report(Slack, EMail, Text...) specific CVE IDs. But these ignoreCves will be output to JSON file like below.

  • config.toml
[default]
ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6313"]

[servers.bsd]
host     = "192.168.11.11"
user     = "kanbe"
ignoreCves = ["CVE-2016-6314"]
  • bsd.json
[
  {
    "ServerName": "bsd",
    "Family": "FreeBSD",
    "Release": "10.3-RELEASE",
    "IgnoredCves" : [
      "CveDetail" : {
        "CVE-2016-6313",
        ...
      },
      "CveDetail" : {
        "CVE-2016-6314",
        ...
      }
    ]
  }
]

Example: Add optional key-value pairs to JSON

Optional key-value can be outputted to JSON.
The key-value in the default section will be overwritten by servers section's key-value.
For instance, you can use this field for Azure ResourceGroup name, Azure VM Name and so on.

  • config.toml
[default]
optional = [
	["key1", "default_value"],
	["key3", "val3"],
]

[servers.bsd]
host     = "192.168.11.11"
user     = "kanbe"
optional = [
	["key1", "val1"],
	["key2", "val2"],
]
  • bsd.json
[
  {
    "ServerName": "bsd",
    "Family": "FreeBSD",
    "Release": "10.3-RELEASE",
    .... snip ...
    "Optional": [
      [  "key1", "val1" ],
      [  "key2", "val2" ],
      [  "key3", "val3" ]
    ]
  }
]

Example: Use MySQL as a DB storage back-end

$ vuls report \
      -cvedb-type=mysql \
      -cvedb-url="user:pass@tcp(localhost:3306)/dbname?parseTime=true"

Usage: Scan vulnerabilites of non-OS packages

It is possible to detect vulnerabilities in non-OS packages, such as something you compiled by yourself, language libraries and frameworks, that have been registered in the CPE.

  • How to search CPE name by software name

  • Configuration
    To detect the vulnerability of Ruby on Rails v4.2.1, cpeNames needs to be set in the servers section.

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    user        = "ec2-user"
    keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    cpeNames = [
      "cpe:/a:rubyonrails:ruby_on_rails:4.2.1",
    ]
    

Usage: Integrate with OWASP Dependency Check to Automatic update when the libraries are updated (Experimental)

OWASP Dependency check is a utility that identifies project dependencies and checks if there are any known, publicly disclosed, vulnerabilities.

Benefit of integrating Vuls And OWASP Dependency Check is below.

  • Automatic Update of Vuls config when the libraries are updated.
  • Reporting by Email or Slack by using Vuls.
  • Reporting in Japanese
    • OWASP Dependency Check supports only English

How to integrate Vuls with OWASP Dependency Check

  • Execute OWASP Dependency Check with --format=XML option.

  • Define the xml file path of dependency check in config.toml.

    [servers]
    
    [servers.172-31-4-82]
    host         = "172.31.4.82"
    user        = "ec2-user"
    keyPath     = "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa"
    dependencyCheckXMLPath = "/tmp/dependency-check-report.xml"
    

Usage: TUI

Display the latest scan results

tui:
        tui
                [-cvedb-type=sqlite3|mysql]
                [-cvedb-path=/path/to/cve.sqlite3]
                [-cvedb-url=http://127.0.0.1:1323 or mysql connection string]
                [-refresh-cve]
                [-results-dir=/path/to/results]
                [-log-dir=/path/to/log]
                [-debug]
                [-debug-sql]
                [-pipe]

  -cvedb-path string
        /path/to/sqlite3 (For get cve detail from cve.sqlite3) 
  -cvedb-type string
        DB type for fetching CVE dictionary (sqlite3 or mysql) (default "sqlite3")
  -cvedb-url string
        http://cve-dictionary.com:8080 or mysql connection string
  -debug
        debug mode
  -debug-sql
        debug SQL
  -log-dir string
        /path/to/log (default "/var/log/vuls")
  -pipe
        Use stdin via PIPE
  -refresh-cve
        Refresh CVE information in JSON file under results dir
  -results-dir string
        /path/to/results 

Key binding is below.

key
TAB move cursor among the panes
Arrow up/down move cursor to up/down
Ctrl+j, Ctrl+k move cursor to up/down
Ctrl+u, Ctrl+d page up/down

For details, see https://github.com/future-architect/vuls/blob/master/report/tui.go

Display the previous scan results

  • Display the list of scan results.
$ vuls history
2016-12-30T10:34:38+09:00 1 servers: u16
2016-12-28T19:15:19+09:00 1 servers: ama
2016-12-28T19:10:03+09:00 1 servers: cent6
  • Display the result of scan 2016-12-30T10:34:38+09:00
$ vuls tui 2016-12-30T10:34:38+09:00

Display the previous scan results using peco

$ vuls history | peco | vuls tui -pipe

asciicast

Usage: go-cve-dictionary on different server

Run go-cve-dictionary as server mode before scanning on 192.168.10.1

$ go-cve-dictionary server -bind=192.168.10.1 -port=1323

Run Vuls with -cvedb-url option.

$ vuls scan -cvedb-url=http://192.168.0.1:1323

Usage: Update NVD Data

see go-cve-dictionary#usage-fetch-nvd-data


How to Update

  • Update go-cve-dictionary
    If the DB schema was changed, please specify new SQLite3 or MySQL DB file.
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/kotakanbe/go-cve-dictionary
$ git pull
$ rm -r vendor
$ make install
  • Update vuls
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/future-architect/vuls
$ git pull
$ rm -r vendor
$ make install

Binary file was built under $GOPATH/bin


Misc

  • Unable to go get vuls
    Update git to the latest version. Old version of git can't get some repositories.
    see https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/mgo-users/rO1-gUDFo_g

  • HTTP Proxy Support
    If your system is behind HTTP proxy, you have to specify --http-proxy option.

  • How to Daemonize go-cve-dictionary
    Use Systemd, Upstart or supervisord, daemontools...

  • How to Enable Automatic-Update of Vulnerability Data.
    Use job scheduler like Cron (with -last2y option).

  • How to Enable Automatic-Scan.
    Use job scheduler like Cron.
    Set NOPASSWORD option in /etc/sudoers on target servers.
    Use SSH Key-Based Authentication with no passphrase or ssh-agent.

  • How to cross compile

    $ cd /path/to/your/local-git-reporsitory/vuls
    $ GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 go build -o vuls.amd64
  • Logging
    Log is under /var/log/vuls/

  • Debug
    Run with --debug, --sql-debug option.

  • Adjusting Open File Limit
    Riak docs is awesome.

  • Does Vuls accept SSH connections with fish-shell or old zsh as the login shell?
    No, Vuls needs a user on the server for bash login. see also #8

  • Windows
    Use Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer. MBSA


Related Projects


Data Source

Authors

kotakanbe (@kotakanbe) created vuls and these fine people have contributed.


Contribute

  1. fork a repository: github.com/future-architect/vuls to github.com/you/repo
  2. get original code: go get github.com/future-architect/vuls
  3. work on original code
  4. add remote to your repo: git remote add myfork https://github.com/you/repo.git
  5. push your changes: git push myfork
  6. create a new Pull Request

Change Log

Please see CHANGELOG.


License

Please see LICENSE.