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linkedin / pygradle


Using Gradle to build Python projects


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The PyGradle build system is a set of Gradle plugins that can be used to build Python artifacts. Artifacts produced by PyGradle are forward and backward compatible with artifacts produced with Python's setuptools library.

Why should I use PyGradle?

Although most aspects of the Python ecosystem are exceptional, there are some aspects that aren't so great. The Python ecosystem is extremely productive in aspects such as local development, artifact management, library functionality, and more. But, the Python ecosystem does struggle with things like dependency management, dependency resolution, conflict resolution, integration with existing metadata systems, and more. Projects that are built with the PyGradle build system get the best of both worlds by leveraging each tool, Python and Gradle, only for what it is good at.

The @linkedin/pygradle-devs team feels the major advantages of using PyGradle, among many others, are the following.

  • You get real dependency resolution as opposed to 'mock' dependency resolution.
  • You get conflict resolution which resolves the notorious VersionConflict and DistributionNotFound errors that plague large projects.
  • You get the Gradle cache which is an enterprise quality caching solution that many organizations leverage.
  • You get the ability to build your Python code alongside your Java, Scala, and C++ code in a first class way.
  • You get a pluggable build system that can quickly be customized or adapted to support new technologies like pex.
  • You get to integrate completely with the metadata systems that teams have spent millions of engineering dollars working on.

Getting Started

For a quick start, lets look at a simple example of publishing a library using two dependencies.

plugins {
  id "com.linkedin.python-sdist" version "0.3.9"

dependencies {
    python 'pypi:requests:2.9.1'
    test 'pypi:mock:1.0.1'

repositories {

We apply a plugin com.linkedin.python-sdist which adds configurations python and test to the project. In the dependencies section we add two dependencies, one required to run and one required for testing. With this information PyGradle will download the artifacts from a repository (omitted from example) install requests and mock along with their dependencies to a virtual environment and run any tests that you may have.

For a more step by step guide, check out the example project in examples/.

We recommend that you use Gradle 3.0, but we will try to maintain backwards compatibility to Gradle 2.10 and above, but will require using Java 7 or above.

Plugins Available

PyGradle comes with several plugins available, for specific details on each plugin check the documentation specific to that plugin.

Plugin Name Used When
com.linkedin.python Base Python Plugin
com.linkedin.python-sdist Developing Libraries
com.linkedin.python-web-app Developing Deployable Applications
com.linkedin.python-cli Developing Command Line Applications
com.linkedin.python-flyer Developing Flyer (Flask + Ember) Applications
com.linkedin.python-pex Developing Pex Applications

Custom Setup Tools Distribution Class

There are some cases where you will need to implement a distribution class that can take the command 'entrypoints'. We provide a suggested for projects. You can find it in pygradle-plugin/templates/ In order to make it easy for consumers to use, we also provide a task generateSetupPy that will write it out to disk. Be careful, this task will overwrite any existing in the project.

PyPi Artifacts

PyGradle depends on Ivy metadata to build a dependency graph, thus we cannot use pypi directly. We do have a java library that will convert libraries from pypi into Ivy located in pivy-importer. In that project you can find usage examples. The pivy-importer project is how the integration tests get their required dependencies.

To help with on boarding, we are providing a repository that has all of pygradle's require dependencies. You can apply it by adding

repositories {

to your build.gradle. This is not intended to be a full mirror and will never be a full mirror of pypi. It has the dependencies that PyGradle requires to start, and may in the future include very common libraries. The repo was seeded using the pivy-importer.

For more details on the pivy-importer please read the docs.

Developing on PyGradle

Building PyGradle

To build PyGradle run ./gradlew build. This will compile the project, run the tests and integration tests.

To publish to a local repo, run ./gradlew publishToMavenLocal. This will publish PyGradle artifacts to ~/.m2 using maven as the metadata format. To use this version, be sure to update the version in the project under test and add mavenLocal() to the repositories.


To contribute to PyGradle please fork the project, make your changes locally and open a pull request. If possible include a description about why this change is being added along with tests that validate the changes. Your commits must pass checkstyle and codenarc. Any substantial change should include unit/integration tests.

A CI build runs with every pull request, the build must pass before we will merge any commits.

We prefer that you squash commits into a single commit for a single change, multiple changes may be multiple commits.

From time to time LinkedIn maintainers may find issues with the changes that break our internal tests. When this happens we will allow the merge to happen but add tests and update the code to make our internal tests pass. This means that we probably won't publish a version until we can validate the changes internally.

Known Potential Issues